Energy efficiency in industrial environments: an updated review and a new research agenda
Keywords:Energy Efficiency, Research Agenda, Systematic Literature Review
Nowadays, discussions about the use of energy efficiency in industries have intensified due to the need to optimize the resources used, especially the high cost in the production process. In this context, a literature review and a research agenda on energy efficiency in industrial environments can assist in the search for solutions and challenges to reduce energy consumption in manufacturing, as well as identify future trends for the topic. Therefore, this article proposes to update the energy efficiency research agenda in industrial environments, through a systematic review of the literature, between the years 2015 and 2020, in search of articles published in journals with current practices and the new strategies used in energy management. For the review of the research agenda, one hundred and eighty-five articles were selected, which were read and used in the bibliometric analysis, which was compared to the results obtained and observed in the base article for this update, thus helping in directing the creation of an agenda for studies and practices in energy efficiency in manufacturing environments.
F. C. Fenerich; S. E. G. da Costa; E. P. de Lima. “Energy Efficiency in Industrial Environments: Overview and Research Agenda”, IEEE, v. 15, pp 415-422, 2017.
K. O’Rielly; J. Jeswiet. "Strategies to improve industrial energy efficiency". Procedia Cirp, vol. 15, pp. 325-330, 2014.
K. Tanaka. “Assessment of energy efficiency performance measures in industry and their application for Policy”. Energy policy, v. 36, n. 8, pp. 2887-2902, 2008.
J.M. Cullen; J.M Allwood. “Theoretical efficiency limits for energy conversion devices”. Energy, vol. 35, pp. 2059-2069, 2010.
T. Gutowski et al. “A thermodynamics characterization of manufacturing processes”. IEEE international symposium on electronics and the environment, pp. 137-142, 2007.
IEA (2019), World Energy Investment 2019, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-investment-2019.
C. Cooremans; A. Schönenberger. “Energy management: A key driver of energy-efficiency investment?” Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 230, p. 264-275, 2019.
Y. A. Çengel. “Energy efficiency as an inexhaustible energy resource with perspectives from the U.S. and Turkey”. International Journal of Energy Research. 35:153–161, 2011.
T. C. S. Lima; R. C. T. Mioto. "Procedimentos metodológicos na construção do conhecimento científico: a pesquisa bibliográfica", Revista Katálysis, v. 10, n. SPE, pp. 37-45, 2007.
H. DU, L. Wei; L. Brown; A. Marilyn; Y. Wang; Z. Shi. "A bibliometric analysis of recent energy efficient literatures: an expanding and sifting focus". Energy Efficiency, v. 6, pp 177-190, 2013.
E. Munzlinger; F. B. Narcizo; J. E. R. Queiroz. “Sistematização de revisões bibliográficas em pesquisas da área de IHC”. In IHC Companion, pp. 51-54, 2012.
K. Rodriguez; J. A. Moreiro. "The growth and development of research in the field of ecology", Scientometrics, v. 1, n. 35. Pp 59-70, 1996.
M. Schulze; H. Nehler; M. Ottosson; P. Thollander. “Energy management in industry–a systematic review of previous findings and an integrative conceptual framework”. Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 112, pp. 3692-3708, 2016.
Z. Wang; C. Feng. “A performance evaluation of the energy, environmental, and economic efficiency and productivity in China: An application of global data envelopment analysis”. Applied Energy, vol. 147, pp. 617–626, 2015.
Z. Wang; C. Feng. “Sources of production inefficiency and productivity growth in China: A global data envelopment analysis”. Energy Economics, vol. 49, pp. 380–389, 2015.
W. Lin et al “A Multi-objective teaching−learning-based optimization algorithm to scheduling in turning processes for minimizing make span and carbon footprint”, Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 101, p. 337-347, 2015.
A. Arteconi et al “Thermal energy storage coupled with PV panels for demand side management of industrial building cooling loads”. Applied Energy, v. 185, p. 1984-1993, 2017.
K. Wang; Y. M. Wei. “Sources of energy productivity change in China during 1997–2012: A decomposition analysis based on the Luenberger productivity indicator. Energy Economics, v. 54, p. 50-59, 2016.
J. Y. Ding et al “Parallel machine scheduling under time-of-use electricity prices: New models and optimization approaches”. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, v. 13, n. 2, p. 1138-1154, 2015.
L. Peng et al. “Analysis of energy efficiency and carbon dioxide reduction in the Chinese pulp and paper industry”. Energy Policy, v. 80, p. 65-75, 2015.
Y. Wang; L. Li. “Time-of-use electricity pricing for industrial customers: A survey of U.S. utilities". Applied Energy, v. 149, p. 89-103, 2015.
P. Vallejos-Cifuentes et al. “Energy-Aware Production Scheduling in Flow Shop and Job Shop Environments Using a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm”. Engineering Management Journal, v. 31, n. 2, p. 82-97, 2019.
L. Kong; A. Hasanbeigi; L. Price. “Assessment of emerging energy-efficiency technologies for the pulp and paper industry: a technical review”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 122, p. 5-28, 2016.
M. T. Costa-Campi; J. García-Quevedo; A. Segarra. “Energy efficiency determinants: An empirical analysis of Spanish innovative firms”. Energy Policy, v. 83, p. 229-239, 2015.
B. Lin; Q. Zheng. “Energy efficiency evolution of China's paper industry”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 140, p. 1105-1117, 2017.
Y. Ozkara; M. Atak. “Regional total-factor energy efficiency and electricity saving potential of manufacturing industry in Turkey”. Energy, v. 93, p. 495-510, 2015.
J. Wang; T. Zhao. “Regional energy-environmental performance and investment strategy for China's non-ferrous metals industry: a non-radial DEA based analysis”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 163, p. 187-201, 2017.
Z. Yang et al. “On energetic evaluation of robotic belt grinding mechanisms based on single spherical abrasive grain model”. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, v. 104, n. 9-12, p. 4539-4548, 2019.
J. Henriques; J. Catarino. “Sustainable value and cleaner production - Research and application in 19 Portuguese SME”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 96, p. 379-386, 2015.
T. Weitzel; C. H. Glock. “Energy management for stationary electric energy storage systems: A systematic literature review”. European Journal of Operational Research, 264(2), 582-606 v. 264, n. 2, p. 582-606, 2018.
M. Wei; S. H. Hong; M. Alam. “An IoT-based energy-management platform for industrial facilities”. Applied Energy, v. 164, p. 607-619, 2016.
X. Wang; B. Lin. “Factor and fuel substitution in China's iron & steel industry: evidence and policy implications”. Journal of cleaner production, v. 141, p. 751-759, 2017.
C. Song; w. Oh. “Determinants of innovation in energy intensive industry and implications for energy policy”. Energy Policy, v. 81, p. 122–130, 2015.
N. Hrovatin; N. D. sak; J. Zori. “Factors impacting investments in energy efficiency and clean technologies: empirical evidence from Slovenian manufacturing firms”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 127, p. 475-486, 2016.
E. Cagno; A. Ramirez-Portilla; A. Trianni. “Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector”. Energy Policy, v. 83, p. 240-256, 2015.
J. Henriques; J. Catarino. “Motivating towards energy efficiency in small and medium enterprises”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 139, p. 42-50, 2016.
A. van Stiphout; K. De Vos; G. Deconinck. “The impact of operating reserves on investment planning of renewable power systems”. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, v. 32, n. 1, p. 378-388, 2016.
G. Ingarao. “Manufacturing strategies for efficiency in energy and resources use: The role of metal shaping processes”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 142, p. 2872-2886, 2017.
Y. Zhang et al. “A big data driven analytical framework for energy-intensive manufacturing industries”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 197, p. 57-72, 2018.
J. Fresner et al. “Energy efficiency in small and medium enterprises: Lessons learned from 280 energy audits across Europe”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 142, p. 1650– 1660, 2017.
H. Hibino; T. Horikawa; M. Yamaguchi. “A study on lot-size dependence of the energy consumption per unit of production throughput concerning variable lot-size”. Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and manufacturing, v.13, n. 3, p. 62, 2019.
L. Feng; L. Mears; C. Beaufort; J. Schulte. “Energy, economy, and environment analysis and optimization on manufacturing plant energy supply system”. Energy Conversion and Management, v. 117, p. 454-465, 2016.
C. Feng et al. “Decomposition of energy efficiency and energy-saving potential in China: A three-hierarchy meta-frontier approach”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 176, p. 1054-1064, 2018.
Y. Guo et al. “An operation-mode based simulation approach to enhance the energy conservation of machine tools”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 101, p. 348-359, 2015.
M. Yang; X Feng; G. Liu. “Heat integration of heat pump assisted distillation into the overall process”. Applied energy, v. 162, p. 1-10, 2016.
K. Li; N. Zhang; Y. Liu. “The energy rebound effects across China’s industrial sectors: An output distance function approach”. Applied Energy, v. 184, p. 1165-1175, 2016.
T. Peng; X. Xu. “An interoperable energy consumption analysis system for CNC machining”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 140, p. 1828-1841, 2017.
K. Salonitis, K. “Energy efficiency assessment of grinding strategy”. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, v. 9, n. 1, p. 20-37, 2015.
N. Wu; Z. Li; T. Qu. “Energy efficiency optimization in scheduling crude oil operations of refinery based on linear programming”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 166, p. 49-57, 2017.
A. Svensson; S. Paramonova. “An analytical model for identifying and addressing energy efficiency improvement opportunities in industrial production systems – model development and testing experiences from Sweden”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 142, p. 2407-2422, 2017.
Y. Zhang; L. Ge. “Method for process planning optimization with energy efficiency consideration”. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, v. 77, n. 9-12, p. 2197-2207, 2015.
A. S. Wallerand; M. Kermani; I. Kantor; F. Maréchal. “Optimal heat pump integration in industrial processes”. Applied Energy, v. 219, p. 68-92, 2018.
B. Lina; Z. Du. “Promoting energy conservation in China's metallurgy industry”. Energy Policy, v. 104, p. 285–294, 2017.
S. Dasgupta; J. Roy. “Understanding technological progress and input price as drivers of energy demand in manufacturing industries in India”. Energy Policy, v. 83, p. 1-13, 2015.
E. O'Driscoll; K. Kelly; G. E. O'Donnell. “Intelligent energy based status identification as a platform for improvement of machine tool efficiency and effectiveness”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 105, p. 184-195, 2015.
O. Y. Edelenbosch et al. “Comparing projections of industrial energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in long-term energy models”. Energy, v. 122, p. 701-710, 2015.
H. Liang et al. “Balancing regional industrial development: analysis on regional disparity of China's industrial emissions and policy implications”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 126, p. 223-235, 2016.
S. Safarzadeh; M. Rasti-Barzoki. “A game theoretic approach for pricing policies in a duopolistic supply chain considering energy productivity, industrial rebound effect, and government policies”. Energy, v. 167, p. 92-105, 2019.
S. Jia et al. “Energy modeling method of machine-operator system for sustainable machining”. Energy Conversion and Management, v. 172, p. 265–276, 2018.
P. Ball. “Low energy production impact on lean flow. Journal of manufacturing technology management, v. 26, n. 3, p. 412-428, 2015.
D. L. Summerbell; D. Khripko; C. Barlow; J. Hesselbach. “Cost and carbon reductions from industrial demand-side management: Study of potential savings at a cement plant”. Applied Energy, v. 197, p. 100-113, 2017.
L. Li et al. “Influence factors and operational strategies for energy efficiency improvement of CNC machining”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 161, p. 220-238, 2017.
N. Salahi; M. A. Jafari. “Energy-Performance as a driver for optimal production planning”. Applied energy, v. 174, p. 88-100, 2016.
B. S. Silvestre; F. A. P. Gimenes, F. A. P. “A sustainability paradox? Sustainable operations in the offshore oil and gas industry: The case of Petrobras”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 142, p. 360-370, 2017.
C. Liu et al. “Energy-based evaluation and improvement for sustainable manufacturing systems considering resource efficiency and environment performance”. Energy Conversion and Management, v. 177, p. 176-189, 2018.
B. Jovanović; J. Filipović; V. Bakić. “Energy management system implementation in Serbian manufacturing–Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle approach”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 162, p. 1144-1156, 2017.
A. Hoang; P. Do; B. Iung. “Energy efficiency performance-based prognostics for aided maintenance decision-making: Application to a manufacturing platform”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 142, p. 2838-2857, 2017.
S. Lee; B. D. Chung; H. W. Jeon; J. Chang. “A dynamic control approach for energy-efficient production scheduling on a single machine under time-varying electricity pricing”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 165, p. 552-563, 2017.
E. Andersson; O. Arfwidsson; P. Thollander. “Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 182, p. 883-895, 2018.
P. Ghadimi; S. Kara; B. Kornfeld, B. “Renewable energy integration into factories: Real-time control of on-site energy systems”. CIRP Annals, v. 64, n. 1, p. 443-446, 2015.
J. Wilson; A. Arokiam; H. Belaidi; J. Ladbrook. “A simple energy usage toolkit from manufacturing simulation data”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 122, p. 266-276, 2016.
O. Alarfaj; K. Bhattacharya. “Material Flow Based Power Demand Modeling of an Oil Refinery Process for Optimal Energy Management”. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, v. 34, n. 3, p. 2312-2321, 2018.
J. Liu; S. Zhang; F. Wagner. “Exploring the driving forces of energy consumption and environmental pollution in China's cement industry at the provincial level”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 184, p. 274-285, 2018.
Z. Han; S. Guo. “Investigation of operation strategy of combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system based on advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage”. Energy, v. 160, p. 290-308, 2018.
X. Xu et al. “Factors influencing industrial carbon emissions and strategies for carbon mitigation in the Yangtze River Delta of China”. Journal of cleaner production, v. 142, p. 3607-3616, 2017.
J. Catarino; J. Henriques; F. Egreja. “Portuguese SME toward energy efficiency improvement”. Energy Efficiency, v. 8, n. 5, p. 995-1013, 2015.
Y. Wang; X. Jin; X. Fang. “Rapid evaluation of operation performance of multi-chiller system based on history data analysis”. Energy and Buildings, v. 134, p. 162-170, 2017.
W. Wang; H. Yang; Y. Zhang; J. Xu. “IoT-enabled real-time energy efficiency optimisation method forenergy-intensive manufacturing enterprises”. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, v. 31, n. 4-5, p. 362-379, 2018.
E. L. Vine; C. M. Jones. “Competition, carbon, and conservation: Assessing the energy savings potential of energy efficiency competitions”. Energy Research & Social Science, v. 19, p. 158-176, 2016.
A. Abdulaal; R. Moghaddass; S. Asfour. “Two-stage discrete-continuous multi-objective load optimization: An industrial consumer utility approach to demand response”. Applied energy, v. 206, p. 206-221, 2017.
Y. Fernando; P. S. Bee; C. J. C. Jabbour; A. M. T. Thomé. “Understanding the effects of energy management practices on renewable energy supply chains: Implications for energy policy in emerging economies”. Energy Policy, v. 118, p. 418-428, 2018.
J. Tuo; F. Liu; P. Liu; H. Zhang; W. Cai. “Energy efficiency evaluation for machining systems through virtual part”. Energy, v. 159, p. 172-183, 2018.
Z. Liu; S. Guo; L. Wang. “Integrated green scheduling optimization of flexible job shop and crane transportation considering comprehensive energy consumption”. Journal of cleaner production, v. 211, p. 765-786, 2019.
D. Kindström; M. Ottosson. “Local and regional energy companies offering energy services: Key activities and implications for the business model”. Applied Energy, v. 171, p. 491-500, 2016.
M. J. S. Zuberi; A. Tijdink; M. K. Patel. “Techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency improvement in electric motor driven systems in Swiss industry”. Applied Energy, v. 205, p. 85-104, 2017.
A. K. Bergquist; K. Söderholm. “Sustainable energy transition: the case of the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1973–1990”. Energy Efficiency, v. 9, n. 5, p. 1179-1192, 2016.
I. F. Edem; V. A. Balogun; P. T. Mativenga. “An investigation on the impact of toolpath strategies and machine tool axes configurations on electrical energy demand in mechanical machining”. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, v. 92, n. 5-8, p. 2503-2509, 2017.
J. Malinauskaite et al. “Energy efficiency in industry: EU and national policies in Italy and the UK”. Energy, v. 172, p. 255-269, 2019.
P. C. Priarone. “Quality-conscious optimization of energy consumption in a grinding process applying sustainability indicators”. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, v. 86, n. 5-8, p. 2107-2117, 2016.
P. Liu et al. “A novel method for energy efficiency evaluation to support efficient machine tool selection”. Journal of cleaner production, v. 191, p. 57-66, 2018.
S. Wang et al. “Big Data enabled Intelligent Immune System for energy efficient manufacturing management”, Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 195, p. 507-520, 2018.
M. Pusnik; F. Al-Mansour; B. Sucic; M. Cesen. “Trends and prospects of energy efficiency development in Slovenian industry”. Energy, v. 136, p. 52-62, 2017.
S. Wang; X. Lu; X. X. Li; W. D. Li. “A systematic approach of process planning and scheduling optimization for sustainable machining”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 87, p. 914-929, 2015.
Q. Zhang; W. Tang; J. Zhang. “Who should determine energy efficiency level in a green cost-sharing supply chain with learning effect?” Computers & Industrial Engineering, v. 115, p. 226-239, 2018.
Y. Lu; T. Peng; X. Xu. “Energy-efficient cyber-physical production network: Architecture and technologies”. Computers & Industrial Engineering, v. 129, p. 56-66, 2019.
N. O. Kapustin; D. A. Grushevenko. “Exploring the implications of Russian Energy Strategy project for oil refining sector”. Energy Policy, v. 117, p. 198-207, 2018.
B. Gong, B. “Different behaviors in natural gas production between national and private oil companies: Economics-driven or environment-driven?” Energy Policy, v. 114, p. 145-152, 2018.
S. Ma; Y. Zhang; J. Lv; H. Yang; J. Wu. “Energy-cyber-physical system enabled management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 226, p.892-903, 2019.
Z. Wena; Y. Wanga; C. Zhang; X. Zhang. “Uncertainty analysis of industrial energy conservation management in China's iron and steel industry”. Journal of Environmental Management, v. 225, p. 205–214, 2018.
D. Uz. “Energy efficiency investments in small and medium sized manufacturing firms: The case of California energy crisis”. Energy Economics, v. 70, p. 421-428, 2018.
S. M. Abolarin et al. “An economic evaluation of energy management opportunities in a medium scale manufacturing industry in Lagos”. In International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, v. 14, p. 97-106, 2015.
J. Han; S. J. Yun. “An analysis of the electricity consumption reduction potential of electric motors in the South Korean manufacturing sector”. Energy Efficiency, v. 8, n. 6, p. 1035-1047, 2015.
B. A. Schlueter; M. B. Rosano. “A holistic approach to energy efficiency assessment in plastic processing. ” Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 118, p. 19-28, 2016.
N. Finnerty; R. Sterling; S. Contreras; D. Coakley; M. M. Keane. “Defining corporate energy policy and strategy to achieve carbon emissions reduction targets via energy management in non-energy intensive multi-site manufacturing organisations”. Energy, v. 151, p. 913-929, 2018.
T. H. Kwan; Y. Shen; Q. Yao. “An energy management strategy for supplying combined heat and power by the fuel cell thermoelectric hybrid system”. Applied Energy, v. 251, p. 113318, 2019.
J. Brinkerink; A. Chegut; W. Letterie. “Energy performance and capital expenditures in manufacturing industries”. Energy Efficiency, v. 12, n. 8, p. 2011-2038, 2019.
G. F. G. Teixeira; O.C. Junior. “How to make strategic planning for corporate sustainability?”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 230, p. 1421-1431, 2019.
Y. Guo; J. R. Duflou; Y. Deng; B. Lauwers. “A life cycle energy analysis integrated process planning approach to foster the sustainability of discrete part manufacturing”. Energy, v. 153, p. 604-617, 2018.
S. Baysan; O. Kabadurmus; E. Cevikcan; S. I. Satoglu; M. B. Durmusoglu. “A simulation-based methodology for the analysis of the effect of lean tools on energy efficiency: An application in power distribution industry”. Journal of cleaner production, v. 211, p. 895-908, 2019.
N. Diaz-Elsayed; D. Dornfeld; A. Horvath. “A comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of machine tool manufacturing facilities”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 95, p. 223-231, 2015.
N. Finnerty; R. Sterling; D. Coakley; S. Contreras; R. Coffey; M. Keane. “Development of a Global Energy Management System for non-energy intensive multi-site industrial organisations: A methodology”. Energy, v. 136, p. 16-31, 2017.
H. Hopf; E. Müller. “Providing energy data and information for sustainable manufacturing systems by Energy Cards”. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, v. 36, p. 76-83, 2015.
H. Liao; Y. F. Du; Z. Huang; Y. M. Wei, Y. M. “Measuring energy economic efficiency: A mathematical programming approach”. Applied Energy, v. 179, p. 479-487, 2016.
L. A. Ocampo et al. “An integrated sustainable manufacturing strategy framework using fuzzy analytic network process”. Advances in Production Engineering & Management, v. 10, n. 3, p. 125, 2015.
M. Coatalem; V. Mazauric; C. Le Pape-Gardeux; N. Maïzi, N. “Optimizing industries’ power generation assets on the electricity markets”. Applied Energy, v. 185, p. 1744-1756, 2017.
J. Ouyang; H. Shen, H. “The choice of energy saving modes for an energy-intensive manufacturer considering non-energy benefits”. Journal of cleaner production, v. 141, p. 83-98, 2017.
Peng, K. et al. “Interdependence between energy and metals in China: evidence from a nexus perspective”. Journal of cleaner production, v. 214, p. 345-355, 2019.
M. Richert. “An energy management framework tailor-made for SMEs: Case study of a German car company”. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 164, p. 221-229, 2017.
I. Siksnelyte; E. K. Zavadskas; R. Bausys; D. Streimikiene, D. “Implementation of EU energy policy priorities in the Baltic Sea Region countries: Sustainability assessment based on neutrosophic MULTIMOORA method”. Energy policy, v. 125, p. 90-102, 2019.
X. Xing et al. “Optimal design of distributed energy systems for industrial parks under gas shortage based on augmented ε-constraint method. Journal of cleaner production, v. 218, p. 782-795, 2019.
S. Gong; C. Shao; L. Zhu. “Multi-level and multi-granularity energy efficiency diagnosis scheme for ethylene production process”. Energy, v. 170, p. 1151-1169, 2019.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
• 1. The author(s) authorize the publication of the article in the journal.
• 2. The author(s) ensure that the contribution is original and unpublished and is not being evaluated in other journal(s).
• 3. The journal is not responsible for the opinions, ideas and concepts expressed in the texts because they are the sole responsibility of the author(s).
• 4. The publishers reserve the right to make adjustments and textual adaptation to the norms of APA.
• 5. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work [SPECIFY PERIOD OF TIME] after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
• 6. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
• 7. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access) at http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html